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Biography

CARLOS CRUZ-DIEZ  (1923-2019 Venezuela/France)

“Art is a complex structure of communication, expression, discovery, invention.”

Born in Caracas, Carlos Cruz-Diez first studied art at the Escuela de Artes Plásticas y Aplicadas from 1940 to 1945. While studying there, he participated in a lively discussion group which included artists Jesús Rafael Soto and Alejandro Otero, key figures of the Venezuelan kinetic art movement. He was also influenced by his study of impressionism, as it applied to experiments with color. In his earliest work, Cruz-Diez painted figurative canvases intended to reflect and comment upon social issues. In 1954, influenced by his study of the Bauhaus and the European avant-garde, Cruz-Diez created his first abstract and interactive projects. A year later, he began a series of Objetos rítmicos móviles that consisted of multicolored, movable figures made from wood and, in 1957, he began experimenting with colored light. His first Physichromie--translated as "physical color" these works explore the physical dimension of color--was made in 1959. The following year, Cruz-Diez and his family moved to Paris, where he met Argentine artist Luis Tomasello, and members of the Groupe de Recherche d’Art Visuel, and he quickly became an important member of the artistic communities there. 

In 1971, Cruz-Diez established his workshop on the rue Pierre Sémard, in a former Belle Epoque-era butcher’s shop. From that workshop, he pursued his explorations of color and light with Physichromies, Chromosaturations, Chromo-interference Environments, and large-scale public projects, all of which were developed as investigations into visual and perceptual experiences of color. The artist describes his Chromosaturation series as the exploration of an often-unnoticed reality: “That reality (which I consider visible) leads us along other paths, both perceptive and sensory, to parallel ideas of beauty and sublimation.” Cruz-Diez is internationally considered a master artist of the 20th and 21st centuries for his contributions to the theory and practice of color.

Selected Solo Exhibitions

2019

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Carlos Cruz-Diez, Sicardi | Ayers | Bacino, Houston, TX

Semana Cruz-Diez, Caracas, Venezuala

Labyrinthus, Galerie Valérie Bach: La Patinoire Royale, Brussels, Belgium

Cruz-Diez. Hommage à la Couleur, Galerie Denise René, Paris, France

Cruz-Diez: a liberdade da Cor, Espaço Cultural Porto Seguro, Sao Paulo, Brazil

Cruz-Diez. El Color Haciéndose, Museo de Arte Contemporáneo (MAC) Panamá, Panamá City, Panamá

2018

Spatial Chromointerference, Buffalo Bayou Park Cistern, Houston, TX

2017

Carlos Cruz-Diez Autonomía del Color, Sicardi Gallery, Houston, TX

 

Carlos Cruz-Diez. Mastering Colour, Puerta Roja Gallery, Hong Kong, China. 

 

Carlos Cruz-Diez, Galerie Boisséree, Germany, Cologne

 

Chroma, Savannah College of Art and Design (SCAD) Museum of Art, Savannah GA

 

Showroom: Vivir en una obra de arte, Odalys Galería de Arte, Madrid, Spain

2016

Carlos Cruz-Diez : Intégrations dans l’Architecture, Barnes International Realty, Paris, France

 

Efímeras, La Caja, Centro Cultural Chacao, Caracas, Venezuela 

 

Cruz-Diez : du Statique au Dynamique, Galerie Denise René - Espace Marais, Rive Gauche, Paris, France

 

Carlos Cruz-Diez: Un etre flottant, Galerie Mitterrand, Paris France

2015

Carlos Cruz-Diez. Transfiguration de la couleur, Marlborough Monaco, Monaco, Principality of Monaco

 

Carlos Cruz-Diez: A Chromatic Condition, Sicardi Gallery, Houston, TX

 

Didáctica y dialéctica del color, Galería de Arte de la Biblioteca, Universidad Simón Bolívar, Caracas, Venezuela

 

Chromatic Transfiguration, Maxwell Davidson Gallery, New York City, NY 

 

Carlos Cruz-Diez: Didaktik und Dialektik der Farbe, Das Kleine Museum, Weissenstadt, Germany

 

Carlos Cruz-Diez, Graphicart, Caracas, Venezuela


 

Cruz-Diez: Bidimensional Research 1959-2015, Espace Expression, Miami, FL

 

Carlos Cruz-Diez vuelve a Caracas, Galería Freites, Caracas, Venezuela 

 

Atrapando el Color, Museo de la Estampa y del Diseño Carlos Cruz-Diez, Caracas, Venezuela 

 

Cromointerferencias, Marión Gallery, Panama, Republic of Panama

2014

Cruz-Diez en noir et blanc, Maison de l’Amérique Latine, Paris, France

 

Circonstance et Ambiguïté de la Couleur, Fondation Vasarely, Aix-en-Provence, France

 

Didactic and Dialectic of Color, Casa Daros, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil 

2013

Carlos Cruz-Diez, Light Show, Hayward Gallery, Southbank Centre, London, UK

2012

Carlos Cruz-Diez, Sicardi Gallery, Houston, TX

 

Carlos Cruz-Diez: Circumstance and Ambiguity of Color, Jiangsu Provincial Art Museum, Nanjing, China and Henan Art Museum, Zhengzhou, China

 

Carlos Cruz-Diez: Color in Space, Jeonbuk Province Art Museum, Jeonbuk, South Korea; Dream Forest Arts Center, Sang Sang Tok Tok Gallery, Seoul, South Korea

2011  

Carlos Cruz-Diez: Color in Space and Time, Museum of Fine Arts, Houston (MFAH), TX; Museo de Arte Latinoamericano de Buenos Aires (MALBA), Buenos Aires, Argentina; Museo de Arte de Lima, Peru; Pinacoteca de Estado de São Paulo, Brazil

2010

Carlos Cruz-Diez: The Embodied Experience of Color, Miami Art Museum, Miami, FL

 

Environment Chromatic-Interferences, Guangdong Museum of Art, Guangdong, China

 

Circonstance et Ambiguite de la Couleur, Galerie Denise René, Espace Marais, Paris, France

2009

 

Carlos Cruz-Diez. El Color Sucede, Museu d’Art Espanyol Cotemporani, Palma, Spain; Museo de Arte Abstracto Español, Cuenca, Spain
2008(In)formed by Color: Carlos Cruz-Diez, Americas Society, New York, NY

2007

Carte Blanche, Denise René Gallery, Paris, France 

 

La Couleur Dans L’Espace, Maison de l’Amerique llatine, Paris France

 

Sicardi Gallery, Houston, TX

 

Carlos Cruz-Diez, Gabinete de Arte Raquel Arnaud, São Paulo, Brazil

2006

Volume réel, couleur virtuelle, Maison des Arts, Châtillon, France

 

Certain 50 x 50,Carlos Cruz-Diez, Sala Trasnocho Arte Contacto TAC, Caracas, Venezuela

 

Carlos Cruz-Diez: Die farbe im raum, Galerie Konkret Martin Worn, Sulzburg, Germany; Galerie Emilia Suciu, Ausstellungsdauer, Germany

 

Hommage a Cruz-Diez, Stand Meyer-Zafra, Paris, France

 

La Vida en el Color, Galería Fundación Previsora, Caracas, Venezuela

2005

Carlos Cruz-Diez: Interactive Random Chromatic Experience, Sicardi Gallery, Houston, TX

 

22 of the future for the future of Vukovar, Muzeum Sztukiw Lodzi, Vukovar, Poland

 

Universe Sprit du Geometrie, The Museum of Geometric and MADI Art, Dallas, TX

2004

Cruz-Diez. Arte en Guri, Museo de la Estampa y del Diseño Carlos Cruz-Diez, Caracas, Venezuela

2003

Cruz-Diez. Afiches. Exposición Homenaje a los 80 Años de Carlos Cruz-Diez, Museo de la Estampa y del Diseño Carlos Cruz-Diez, Caracas, Venezuela

1999

Retrospectiva 1954-1998, Museo de Arte Moderno del Zulia, Maracaibo, Venezuela

1998

Cruz-Diez: El Color Autónomo, Museo de Arte Moderno de Bogotá, Colombia

 

Carlos Cruz-Diez, Museo de Arte Moderno Jesús Soto, Sala Múltiple, Ciudad Bolívar, Venezuela

 

Carlos Cruz-Diez. Un Pionero del Diseñoen Venezuela. De la Empresa Familiar a la Invención de la Fisicromía. 1923-1959, Museo de la Estampa y del Diseño Carlos Cruz-Diez, Consejo Nacional de la Cultura (CONAC), Caracas, Venezuela

 

Carlos Cruz-Diez “…und gebe dem Raum die Farbe,”Städtishcen Museum, Gelsenkirchen-Buer, Germany

1995

Reflexión sobre el Color, Museo Jacobo Borges, Caracas, Venezuela

1994

Cromosaturación. Carlos Cruz-Diez. Metamorfosis de lo Efímero. Paneles Pictórios y Laberinto Sensorial, Museo de Arte Moderno, Plaza de la Cultura Juan Pablo Duarte, Santo Domino, Dominican Republic

1993

Apuntes sobre el Color, Museo de Bellas Artes, Caracas, Venezuela

1992

Carlos Cruz-Diez. La Visión del Color, Museo de Arte de Maracay, Maracay, Venezuela

1991

Carlos Cruz-Diez. Paris. Couleurs Additives. Sowie Ankäufe us den Jahren 1987-1990, Museum Moderner Kunst Landkreis Cuxhaven, Otterndorf, Germany

 

Cruz-Diez. Color-Arcontecimiento, Museo de Arte Costarricense y Galería Nacional de Arte Contemporáneo, San José, Costa Rica

 

Cruz-Diez. Inducciones Cromáticas, Centro de Arte Contemporáneo, Espacio Simonetti, Valencia, Venezuela

1989

Realites de la Peinture, The Pushkin State Museum of Fine Arts, Moscow & Leningrad, Russia

 

Latin American Art, Hayward Gallery, London, UK; National Museum + Moderna Museet, Stockholm, Sweden; Palacio Velazquez, Madrid, Spain

1988

Carlos Cruz-DiezDie Autonomie der Farbe. Bilders – Plastiken – Objekte aus den Jahren 1959-1988, Josef Albers Museum Quadrat Bottrop, Moderne Galerie, Bottrop, Germany

1985

Cruz-Diez, Museo de Arte Moderno, Medellín, Colombia

Selected Public Collections

Arithmeum, Bonn, Germany

Banco Central de Venezuela, Caracas, Venezuela

Bibliotheque Nationale, Zagreb, Croatia

Blanton Museum of Art, Austin, Texas

Cabinet des Estampes, Geneva, Switzerland

Casa de las Américas, Havana, Cuba

Centre de la Gravure et de l’Image Imprimee, Belgium

Centre National d’Art Contemporain, Centre Pompidou, Paris, France

Collection of Latin American Art, University of Essex, Colchester, UK

Denver Art Museum, Denver Colorado

Erling Neby Collection

Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambrige University, Cambridge, UK

Galería de Arte Nacional (GAN), Caracas, Venezuela

GAM - Galleria Civica d’Arte Moderna e Contemporanea, Turin, Italy

Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, Washington, DC

Irish Museum of Modern Art (IMMA), Dublin, Ireland

Kunsthalle Mannheim, Mannheim, Germany

Kunsthalle Messmer, Riegel am Kaiserstuhl, Germany

Kunstmuseum Bern, Bern, Switzerland

Kunstverein Gelsenkirchen, Germany

Musée d'art contemporain de Lyon, Lyon France

Musée d’Art Contemporain de Montréal, Montreal, Canadá

Musée d’Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris, Paris France

Musée de Grenoble, Grenoble, France

Musee de la Chaux-des-Fonds, Switzerland

Musée des beaux-arts de Montréal, Montréal, Canadá

Museo Civico, Turin, Italy

Museo de Arte Contemporáneo de Buenos Aires (MACBA), Buenos Aires, Argentina

Museo de Arte Contemporáneo Sofia Imber, Caracas, Venezuela 

Museo de Arte Contemporáneo, Bogotá, Colombia

Museo de Arte Costarricense, San Jose, Costa Rica

Museo de Arte Moderno “Jesus Soto,” Ciudad Bolivar, Venezuela

Museo de Arte Moderno de Medellín, Colombia

Museo de Arte Moderno, “La Tertulia,” Cali, Colombia

Museo de Bellas Artes, Caracas, Venezuela 

Museo de la Estampa y del Diseño Carlos Cruz-Diez, Caracas, Venezuela

Museo de la Solidaridad, Salvador Allende, Santiago de Chile

Museu de Arte Moderna, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil        

Museum des 20, Jahrhundert, Vienna, Austria

Museum für Konkrete Kunst, Ingolstadt, Germany

Museum im Kulturspeicher, Würzburg, Germany

Museum Ludwig, Cologne, Germany

Museum Moderner Kunst Stiftung Ludwig Wien (MUMOK), Vienna, Austria

Museum Moderner Kunst, Cuxhaven Otterndorf, Germany

Museum Morsbroich, Leverkusen, Germany

Museum of Contemporary Art, The University of Sydney (JW Power Collection), Sydney, Australia

Museum of Fine Arts (MFAH), Houston, Texas

Museum of Modern Art (MoMA), New York, New York

Museum of Modern Art, Sydney, Australia

Museum of Modern Art, Taipei, Taiwan

Museum Rhode Island, School of Design, Providence, Rhode Island

Muzeum Okregowe, Chelm, Poland

Neue Pinakothek, Munich, Germany

Palm Springs Desert Museum, Palm Springs, California

Quadrat Josef Albers Museum, Bottrop, Germany

San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, San Francisco, California

Santa Barbara Museum of Art, Santa Barbara, California

Sonja Henie-Musee d’Art Moderne, Hovikodden, Oslo, Norway

Stadtische Kunsthalle, Manneheim, Germany

Tate Gallery, Millbank, London, UK

Tate Modern, London, UK

The Geffen Contemporary at The Museum of Contemporary Art (MOCA), Los Angeles, California

The Victoria and Albert Museum, London, UK

Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland

Wallraf-Richartz Museum, Dr, Peter Ludwig Collection, Cologne, France

Wurth Museum, Schawabish Hall, Germany